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Extension > Driven to Discover Citizen Science > August 2013

Tuesday, August 27, 2013

Not seeing many monarchs? Unfortunately, you're not alone.


monarch1.jpgLet's face it, it has not been a lot of fun to monitor monarch eggs and larvae in 2013. In fact, just sitting down to write this article made me a little depressed, so I'm going to walk into my yard (it's August 24, 2013) and see if I can cheer myself up by seeing some monarchs.......... I'm back, and I saw two, one on blazing star and one on ironweed. So, they're out there, and I have the pictures to prove it.

Just what do the numbers show? While we wait until the end of the season when everyone has entered all of their data to do careful analyses, I pulled up the data from Minnesota, where 33 sites are being monitored this summer. The data from other northern states look pretty much the same. These sites range from the Gunflint Trail way up in northeastern MN, where David MacLean has been monitoring a patch of swamp milkweed since 2010 (David saw no eggs or larvae at all in 2013), to New London-Spicer in west-central MN where Laura Molenaar and many students have been monitoring milkweed patches since 2004 (they saw a few monarchs this year), to many sites in the Minneapolis-St Paul metro area (my daughters and I have monitored our yard since 2002, and on my best day this year I found 20 eggs on about 135 plants).

The graph below shows egg densities (as eggs per milkweed plant monitored, so a value of 0.20 means that there were 20 eggs on 100 plants, and value of 0.02 means there were 2 eggs on 100 plants).


mlmp egg density data-mn chart.jpg

  • 2011 was a "normal" year (see the blue line on the graph). The monarchs came back in late May, had a May peak of about 0.27 eggs per milkweed, and a July peak of about 0.16 eggs per milkweed (about 16 per 100 plants).
  • 2012 was unusual (see the red line on the graph); remember our early spring? The monarchs came back about a month early in very high numbers. Note the peak of about 0.60 eggs per milkweed in early May. But then the population crashed, and our early July peak was only about 0.10 eggs per milkweed. The crash was probably due to a combination of the heat and lack of rain, which was hard on the milkweed and the monarchs, and high numbers of predators.
  • 2013 has been terrible from the start (see the green line on the graph). After the lowest overwintering population ever, the monarchs came back late, and the numbers have stayed low. Our peak this summer was during the week of July 22, when the egg density was 0.028; that means people are seeing fewer than 3 eggs for every 100 plants they observe. The graph doesn't show caterpillar data (you can see these numbers online), but out of 14,313 times that MN MLMP observers have looked at a milkweed plant this summer, they have only seen 96 caterpillars, and only 14 5th instars.
What does this mean for monarchs? It means they need all of the help they can get. I'm getting a lot of e-mails from people all over asking me what they can do to help monarchs, and here's what I say. There are really 4 categories of things you can do to help these amazing insects flourish.

  • First, plant milkweed and nectar sources. If you have an MLMP site, you're monarch2.jpgprobably already doing this, but consider adding more plants if possible. Monarchs have lost a lot of habitat with the advent of herbicide-tolerant crops and expanding human habitation.
  • Second, educate others and advocate for monarch conservation. For example, you can register your site as a monarch Waystation, and put up a sign that recognizes that registration (see http://monarchwatch.org/waystations/ for more info). You can talk to friends and neighbors, ask local or county land managers to do things like avoid mowing ditches when monarch larvae might be present, or advocate limiting insecticide spraying at the local, state or national level.
  • Third, get involved in a monarch citizen science program and contribute data that will help us manage monarchs more effectively. The Monarch Larva Monitoring Project, Journey North, and Project Monarch Health are all good possibilities, and all have websites with clear directions.
  • Finally, donate money to conservation organizations like the Monarch Butterfly Fund or the Monarch Joint Venture. These organizations work on monarch conservation in Mexico and the US, respectively.


It's my hope that the MLMP does not become a tool that simply records the demise of monarchs. Rather, it should be a tool that energizes people to do what they can, and helps us understand the best ways to help monarchs survive in a changing world.

Karen Oberhauser

University of Minnesota Monarch Lab


Upcoming events: 17th annual Insect Fair Dec. 7

Greetings from the U of M Monarch Lab! We invite you and your students to participate in the 17th annual Insect Fair, funded by the Medtronic Foundation, on Sat., Dec. 7, 2013. This is an opportunity for your students to display research projects in a science fair-like setting. Any projects related to insects or their habitats are welcome! The fair will be at the University of Minnesota Coffman Union, and will feature exciting break-out sessions, small group interviews, great food, and awards. For more information and to view sample projects, check out our web site (www.monarchlab.org) - select Insect Fair on the navigational menu in the Monarchs in the Classroom section.

All student presenters must make a poster on their research, and submit an abstract for their poster. Students can work individually, in small groups, or as entire classes. Their research can be experimental, carried out in the classroom, outside, or in the library; they do not have to have earth-shattering results. The research can address insects or any other ecological topic that seems relevant (since insects are such key members of communities, anything you study can be related to insects in some way). In addition to carrying out and presenting their research, whenever possible we ask that each student give an "outreach" presentation to younger students, their peers, or adult groups.

We will collect all Insect Fair information online. The first step is to signup online at www.monarchlab.org by Oct. 11 if you'd like to participate. At this point you'll create an account for yourself on our website (unless you already have an account from previous years). You will be able to login at a later point to submit student participant names, project titles, etc. If you have any problems with the online registration, please let us know (612 625-8304, puff0017@umn.edu).

We look forward to seeing you, and learning about the great research you and your students are doing!

Sincerely,

Katie-Lyn Bunney, Sarah Weaver, Karen Oberhauser, and the rest of the MITC Team

Upcoming events: Fall conference call

The fall conference call date is TBD, but will be at the end of October or in early November. Katie-Lyn, Karen and Andrea will find a time and let everyone know.

Read the summary of our Aug. 14 D2D adult leader conference call here.

Research team updates

This space is FOR YOU! We will publish exciting news from your research team here. Send any stories or pictures you'd like published to Katie-Lyn Bunney at kbunney@umn.edu.

  • Here are some pictures of the Breck birders group from Barbara Jacobs-Smith, adult research team member, Minneapolis:


    DSC_0028.jpg

    DSC_0005.jpg

    DSC_0018.jpg
  • Indigo Bunting:
    DSC_0023.jpg
  • Here are some pictures from Laura Molenaar's monarch group in New London, Minnesota:

    Our-school-site-#1.jpg
  • Larva on Maximilian sunflower:

    photo-(1).jpg
  • "We suspect this is the adult of the larva":

    photo-(2)---the-adult.jpg
  • "We suspect this is the pupa. The larvae was so thick in the sunflowers the kids became covered in the black goo. Isn't it fun when we find something we have never observed before."

    photo-(4)---pupa.jpg

Tuesday, August 13, 2013

Asking great questions propels inquiry

"What's in a question, you ask? question-mark-graphic.jpgEverything. It is a way of evoking stimulating response or stultifying inquiry. It is, in essence, the very core of teaching."
- John Dewey, education philosopher.

Experienced leaders use and create a variety of good questions throughout the summer to propel their team members into the inquiry flow. According to a summary of research by Patricia E. Blosser, questions serve a variety of important roles in effective science education:
  • Provoking interest in a topic or idea;
  • Stimulating thinking about information and issues;
  • Helping learners develop a certain mind-set;
  • Reinforcing information and ideas; and
  • Managing activities and learner behavior.
Try to ask open-ended and thought-provoking questions that serve a specific purpose.

An educator may ask learners hundreds of questions in the course of teaching. But studies consistently find that they predominately ask learners closed-ended, low-order questions - questions that require learners to recall memorized correct answers. You can improve your teaching by asking more focused, open-ended, and thought-provoking questions. Try the following with youth on your research teams:
  1. Focus your questions. Keep in mind the authentic inquiry process at the heart of D2D: observing and wondering, sparking provocative questions, formulating hypotheses and investigation, analyzing results and generating conclusions. Where are your team members in their inquiry process? Where will they flow next? Use questions to propel them there.
  2. Know why you are asking each and every question. Will your question provoke learners' interest in what comes next? Will it reinforce key ideas or skills? Will it encourage youth members to further analyze or synthesize the topic? Visit the Questioning Toolkit in the From Now On journal for examples of questions that serve a variety of important purposes.
  3. Make sure your questions target a variety of learning-levels. Do you ask your team members to demonstrate, construct, calculate, diagram, or predict? Bloom's Taxonomy defines six different levels of intellectual behavior, each with "action verbs" you can use in writing questions for team meetings. Low-order questions ask learners to recall information or reproduce skills from memory. "Who can show me the first step in properly filling in our data sheet?" exemplifies a low-order question. High-order questions prompt learners to interpret, analyze, synthesize, evaluate and apply ideas and skills in new situations. "How did you decide that this is the best way to graph your data?" or "What are the strengths and weaknesses of this study design to compare bird species in our wetland and prairie sites?" are both high-order questions. Low-order questions are great for reinforcing ideas or managing activities. High-order questions are usually better suited to provoke or stimulate critical thinking, and help youth make connections.
  4. Make sure your questions have an appropriate structure. Open-ended questions are broad in nature with many potential and varied answers. E.g. "How could you design a form to collect information about tachnid wasps at our site? What about spiders?" Alternatively, closed-ended questions are limited to one or a few specific "correct" answers. E.g. "Who can tell me if this is a robin call?" Closed-ended questions are good for reinforcing information and ideas, stimulating recall, or managing activities. Open-ended questions serve well to provoke and stimulate critical thinking.
Many resources describe how to deliver questions effectively. Developing Questioning Skills by Karron Lewis offers practical suggestions. Above all, encourage students to risk answering your questions. Say things like "I am looking for an adventurous person to tackle this question..." or "Can someone take a shot at answering this question?" Let your team members know when you don't expect them to know a predetermined answer but are seeking thoughtful guesses or reflections. And, of course, resist the urge to answer your own questions. Instead, allow at least a few seconds for youth to think about your question before rephrasing.

Well planned and delivered questions will help you keep your team members in the flow of inquiry. In the words of Cathleen Galas: "A good question leads to more new questions, new discoveries, new realms never even considered before....Teachers should share the excitement of asking questions and finding answers to personally relevant questions."

Nathan Meyer
Center for Food, Agricultural and Natural Resource Sciences
University of Minnesota Extension
This article was adapted from the EE E-Tip for Field Days.

References:

Bloom, B. et al. (1956). Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: The Classification of Educational Goals. Handbook 1. Cognitive Domain. New York: D. McKay.

Blosser, P.E. (1990). Using questions in science classrooms. Research Matters - To the Science Teacher, No. 9001. Online at http://www.narst.org/publications/research/question.cfm.

Galas, C. (1999). The never ending story: Questioning strategies for the information age. Learning and Leading, 25(7).

Lewis, K.G. (1999). Developing questioning skills. Section 5. Teachers and Students: A Sourcebook for UT-Austin Faculty. The University of Texas at Austin Center for Teaching Effectiveness.

McComas, W.F., & Abraham, L. (n.d.). Asking More Effective Questions.

N.A. (1997). A questioning toolkit. From Now On: The Educational Technology Journal, 7(3). Online at http://www.fno.org/nov97/toolkit.html.


"What is a scientist?" resource

Diane Erdmann created this great resource to go along with the "What is a scientist?" lesson in the D2D curriculum. In addition to using these scientist photos for her own D2D club, she also hangs them up in her classroom to give her students a sense of what scientists look like, beyond the stereotypical white lab coat. Diane brings up a great point when she says "maybe we could include our own youth" in the document!

D2D group video

Katie Humason created this video about her D2D group's experience -- the group went from start to finish in two weeks. This video is a great example of what can be done with some photos and video clips!



Upcoming events

Mark your calendar for the Insect Fair

Make sure you have December 6-7 blocked off your calendar for this year's Insect Fair! Fri., Dec. 6 will include dinner and an evening of fun science activities just for D2D clubs, and Sat., Dec. 7 will be the day for the Insect Fair. Be sure to communicate this opportunity to the parents/guardians of youth in your clubs, too. More details will follow, but make sure everyone saves the date!
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